2 January Snowstorm

A long duration winter storm occurred across the entire region from late in the day on January 1st through the morning hours on January 3rd. Along with the snowfall was very cold temperatures and wind, causing dangerously low wind chills.

This event was fairly well advertised by the models for several days in advance, although the details regarding QPF were not made clear until about 18-24 hours before snowfall began. All models showed a period of light isentropic lift snowfall occurring between the afternoon of New Year’s Day into January 2nd, as a surface boundary would be situated south of the region over the mid-Atlantic, with a cold area of high pressure situated north of the area over Quebec. As a wave of low pressure moved along the boundary across the Ohio Valley, it was expected to re-develop off the mid-Atlantic coast and deepen as it moved northeast and out to sea. The ECMWF model was rather inconsistent several days prior to the event, showing a rather deep, slow-moving storm much closer to the coast. Meanwhile, the GFS was fairly consistent in showing a track further offshore, with most of our additional precipitation coming from deformation from the passing upper trough. Eventually, the ECMWF trended towards the GFS about 24-36 hours before the snow began. Even though the coastal storm was going to remain offshore, our area was still expected to see a moderate to heavy snowfall, due to high snow to water ratios and a prolonged event.

Light snow broke out across our western areas by the evening of Wednesday January 1st, and most areas were seeing snowfall between midnight and 3am on January 2nd. With a cold northerly flow draining down the Champlain Valley, temperatures were extremely cold, with temperatures dropping into the single digits across central and northern areas. With southern parts of the area still in the 20s, this created quite a gradient and an area of frontogenesis developed across central parts of the area, including the Capital Region. This allowed for the more moderate snowfall to occur from the late overnight into the morning hours on Thursday, January 2nd across the Schoharie Valley, Capital Region & Saratoga Spring area. Initially, the snowflakes were rather small, as the dendritic snow growth layer was quite close to the ground and the initial isentropic lift was above this layer. Eventually, the lift was through the low and mid-levels, and bisected this snow growth layer, allowing for larger, dendritic snowflakes. With the cold temps in place, snow ratios were high in these areas of better snow (15:1 or better at times).

Southern areas saw a break in the activity during the day on January 2nd, as the best frontogenetic band was north of the area. As the coastal storm began to take shape late in the day on January 2nd, and as the upper trough began to approach from the Midwest and Ohio Valley, steady snowfall redeveloped across the entire region. This deformation snowfall was light to occasionally moderate, with the best snowfall occurring across the Schoharie Valley, Capital Region and into southern Vermont and the Berkshires through the late evening on January 2nd and into the overnight hours of the morning of Friday, January 3rd.

The best frontogenetic forcing across the Capital Region was supported by a tongue of northern stream Potential Vorticity that was able to focus the frontogenesis and subsequent indirect ageostrophic thermal circulation found within the left-exit region of the southern stream jet. Although much of the forecast area was already under a good deformation zone in between the southern stream jet streak (left-exit region) and northern stream jet streak (right-entrance region), a Potential Vorticity analysis indicated a weak treble clef signature in the Potential Vortcity distribution, which often times enhances ageostrophic thermal circulations and subsequent frontogenesis/isentropic lift. This contrasted model guidance, as the guidance did not depict a treble clef signature and instead favored a southern-stream dominated system with little, if any, phasing. In reality, a degree of phasing did occur, which allowed for an enhanced period of Quasi-Geostrophic lift across the Capital Region where the highest snowfall totals fell. Although not a tool to be used by itself, analyzing the Potential Vorticity distribution can offer clues to enhanced regions of isentropic and/or Quasi-Geostrophic lift.

Temperatures continued to slowly fall across the entire region, as the northerly flow increased due to the strengthening gradient. Temperatures dropped below zero for the Glens Falls/Capital Region area, with temperatures as low as -5 to -6 with light snowfall during the overnight hours. Along with the cold temperatures were brisk northerly winds, which allowed for wind chill values of -10 to -30 degrees.

Snowfall tapered off by sunrise on Friday, January 3rd. By the end of the event, 10-15 inches of fluffy snowfall occurred from the Schoharie and Mohawk Valley through the Capital Region, Lake George Saratoga Region and into southern Vermont. Lower amounts of 4-8 inches occurred in NW CT, the mid-Hudson Valley and far northwestern Adirondacks. These amounts were fairly close to what were advertised in our warning products and snow total forecast graphics. As a whole, snow to liquid ratios were at climatology or better, although they did vary somewhat over the region. Overall, a model consensus of the QFP values from the GFS/ECMWF/NAM/SREF from about 18 hours before the snow began seemed to fit well with what actually occurred.

2. What was learned from this event

The extremely cold temperatures along with the snowfall made for quite a unique event. Although this normally would be considered unprecedented, this was already the third snowfall of the season with temperatures under 10 degrees. This was, however, the first event with widespread snowfall, since January 14th 1999, with temperatures less than zero. Too cold to snow is just a myth, as long as enough moisture in the column and good lift are present.

The NYS Thruway from Albany to NYC and from Schenectady to Amsterdam was shut down during the early morning hours on January 3rd from midnight to 5am. I-90 remained opened in and directly around Albany where the highest accumulations occurred. At this point, the event was in its winding down phase, after 24+ hours of snowfall, across the mid-Hudson Valley and Capital Region. Most areas had widespread steady snowfall done by the late night hours, even into the NYC area. Snowfall rates were not as extreme in this storm as during the December 14-15 winter storm. We mentioned snow rates of no greater than 1" per hour during most of this event, as we expected a prolonged, but generally light intensity snowfall. During the December 14-15th event, snow rates of 1-3" per hour were common and all roads remained open during that storm.

Forecast Model Data

Above:  Four-panel MSLP forecasts from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and GFSEnsemble (lower right).

 

Above:  Four-panel forecasts of 250 hPa winds from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM80 (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and NAM12 (lower right).

 

Above:  Four-panel quantitative precipitation forecasts from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and GFSEnsemble probability for 1 inch of liquid equivalent precipitation in 24 hours (lower right).

 

 

Above:  Four-panel 0900 UTC 1 January SREF forecast of mean MSLP (upper left), probability for 0.50" of liquid equivalent precipitation (upper right), probability for 8" of snow in 12 hours (lower left) and mean 12 hour snowfall (lower right).

Above:  Time sections for Albany, NY from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (left) and NAM (right).

Above:  Loop of four-panel forecasts of 850 hPa temperatures from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM80 (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and NAM12 (lower right).

 

Above:  Loop of four-panel forecasts of 850 hPa winds from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM80 (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and NAM12 (lower right).

Above:  Loop of four-panel forecasts of isentropic lift from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM80 (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and NAM12 (lower right).

Above:  Loop of four-panel forecasts of 700 hPa 2-D frontogenesis from the 1200 UTC 1 January GFS (upper left), NAM80 (upper right), ECMWF (lower left) and NAM12 (lower right).

 
 
Above:  Probability of 0.50 inch liquid equivalent precipitation in 24 hours from the 1500 UTC 1 January SREF (left) and 1200 UTC 1 January GFSEnsemble (right).
 
Above:  Plume diagrams for Albany, NY from the 1500 UTC 1 January SREF (left) and 1200 UTC 1 January GFSEnsemble (right).
 
Above:  Plume diagrams for Hartford, CT from the 1500 UTC 1 January SREF (left) and 1200 UTC 1 January GFSEnsemble (right). 
MOS Guidance Snow Groups - Forecast time for each model run (initialization times along the horizontal 
axis on top) is on the left side with 12 hour snow groups further in time as you go down the column.  
Note most of the MOS guidance suggested > 8" for multiple runs across our region prior to the storm.

------------------------------------------------------------------------


      [KALB] GFS MOS snow Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z 31/18Z  01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z

30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	1	0	1	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														

Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Albany, NY.


      [KALB] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	6						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	1	1	1	1	1		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			4	2	4	2	2
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					8	8	8
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							

Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Albany, NY.
      [KDDH] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z

30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	1	0	1	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														

Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Bennington, VT.


      [KDDH] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	6						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	1	1	1	1	1		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	2	4	1	2
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					8	8	8
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							

Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Bennington, VT.


      [KGFL] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z

30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	1					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	0	0	1	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														

Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Glens Falls, NY.


      [KGFL] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	4						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	1	1	1	0	1		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	2	4	1	1
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					8	8	8
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							

Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Glens Falls, NY.

      [KHFD] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z

30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	0	0	0	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														


Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Hartford, CT.

      [KHFD] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z

	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	0						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	0	1	1	0	0		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	2	1	1	1
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					4	8	6
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							

Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Hartford, CT.
      [KMSV] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z
30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	1	0	1	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	6	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														
Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Monticello, NY.
      [KMSV] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	0						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	0	1	0	0	1		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	6	1	2	2
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					4	8	8
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							
Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Monticello, NY.
      [KPOU] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z
30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	0	0	1	0	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														
Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Poughkeepsie, NY.
      [KPOU] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	0						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	0	1	1	0	0		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	6	1	1	1
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					4	8	6
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							
Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Poughkeepsie, NY.
      [KPSF] GFS MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	29/18Z	30/00Z	30/06Z	30/12Z	30/18Z	31/00Z	31/06Z	31/12Z  31/18Z	01/00Z	01/06Z	01/12Z	01/18Z
30/00Z														
30/03Z														
30/06Z														
30/09Z														
30/12Z	0													
30/15Z														
30/18Z														
30/21Z														
31/00Z														
31/03Z														
31/06Z														
31/09Z														
31/12Z	0	0	0	0	0									
31/15Z														
31/18Z														
31/21Z														
01/00Z														
01/03Z														
01/06Z														
01/09Z														
01/12Z	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0	0					
01/15Z														
01/18Z														
01/21Z														
02/00Z														
02/03Z														
02/06Z														
02/09Z														
02/12Z					0	0	1	0	1	1	1	1	1	
02/15Z														
02/18Z														
02/21Z														
03/00Z														
03/03Z														
03/06Z														
03/09Z														
03/12Z									8	8	8	8	8	8
03/15Z														
03/18Z														
03/21Z														
Above:  GFS MOS snow groups for Pittsfield, MA.
      [KPSF] NAM MOS snw Table Centered On: 2014 Jan 02, 00Z
	Model Run Initialized at:
Valid:	29/12Z	30/00Z	30/12Z	31/00Z	31/12Z	01/00Z	01/12Z
30/00Z							
30/03Z							
30/06Z							
30/09Z							
30/12Z	4						
30/15Z							
30/18Z							
30/21Z							
31/00Z							
31/03Z							
31/06Z							
31/09Z							
31/12Z	0	0	0				
31/15Z							
31/18Z							
31/21Z							
01/00Z							
01/03Z							
01/06Z							
01/09Z							
01/12Z	1	1	1	1	0		
01/15Z							
01/18Z							
01/21Z							
02/00Z							
02/03Z							
02/06Z							
02/09Z							
02/12Z			2	2	2	2	2
02/15Z							
02/18Z							
02/21Z							
03/00Z							
03/03Z							
03/06Z							
03/09Z							
03/12Z					6	8	8
03/15Z							
03/18Z							
03/21Z							
Above:  NAM (MET) MOS snow groups for Pittsfield, MA.
Model/Ensemble data initialized during the peak of the storm
 
Above:  Heights at 500 hPa and anomalies from the 1200 UTC 3 January SREF (left) and GFSEnsemble (right).
 
Above:  MSLP and anomalies from the 0600 UTC 3 January SREF (left) and GFSEnsemble (right).
 
Above:  Winds and anomalies during the warm advection phase of the storm at 850 hPa from the 1800 UTC 2 January SREF (left) and GFSEnsemble (right).
 
Above:  Winds and anomalies during the upper deformation phase of the storm at 850 hPa from the 0600 UTC 3 January SREF (left) and GFSEnsemble (right).
Observational data through the storm
   
Above:  Loops of soundings through the storm for Albany, NY (KALB, left), Buffalo, NY (KBUF, left center), Chatham, MA (KCHH, Center right), and Upton, NY (KOKX, Right).  
Note the column at KALB and KBUF remained around the dendridic growth zone during much of the storm.
Above:  Loop of 500 hPa heights through the storm.
Above:  Loop of maximum and minimum temperatures for several days through the storm.

Above:  Loop of regional radar through the storm from College of DuPage.

Above:  Loop of surface maps through the storm.

Above:  GIS based snowfall map for the NWS Albany, NY forecast area.

Above:  NESIS category 2.