For a comprehensive literature list related to CSI, see Dave Schultz's CSI homepage:


Schultz, D. M.: Reexamining the cold conveyor belt. Mon. Wea. Rev (see

Schultz, D. M, J. V. Cortinas, and C. A. Doswell: Comments on: "An operational ingredients-based methodology for forecasting midlatitude winterseason precipitation."  Wea. Forecasting. (see


Baumgardt, D:  Precipitation Microphysics Web Page

Baumgardt, D:  Precipitation Microphysics Slide Show

Schultz, D.M:  Use and Misuse of CSI - WEBCAST

Wetzel, S. W., S. Bachmeier, and J. E. Martin:  An operational ingredients based methodology for forecasting midlatitude winter season precipitation Web Page


Bernstein, B. C., 2000: Regional and local influences on freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellet events. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 485-508.

Bourgouin, P., 2000: A method to determine precipitation types. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 583-592.

Grumm, R. H., and D. J. Nicosia, 1997: WSR-88D observations of mesoscale precipitation bands over Pennsylvania. Natl. Wea. Dig., 21(3), 10--23.

Hux, J. D.,  Paul C. Knappenberger, Patrick J. Michaels, Philip J. Stenger, Hugh D. Cobb III, Michael P. Rusnak, 2001:  Development of a Discriminant Analysis Mixed Precipitation (DAMP) Forecast Model for Mid-Atlantic Winter Storms.  Wea. Forecasting, 16, 248–260.

Kain, J. S., S. M. Goss, and M. E. Baldwin: The melting effect as a factor in precipiation-type forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 700-714.

Lackmann, G. M., 2001: Analysis of a surprise western New York snowstorm. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 99-116.

Olthoff, L. S., M. K. Ramamurthy, and K. E. Kunkel, 2001: Further investigation of a physically based, nondimensional parameter for discriminating between locations of freezing rain and ice pellets. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 185-191.

Rauber, R. M., Y. Yang, M. K. Ramamurthy, and B. F. Jewett, 2001: Origin, evolution, and finescale structure of the St. Valentines's Day mesoscale gravity wave observed during STORM-FEST. Part I: Origin and evolution. Part II: Finescale structure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 198-236.

Schultz, D. M., and P. N. Schumacher, 1999: The use and misuse of conditional symmetric instability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2709-2732.

Trapp, R. J., D. M. Schultz, A. V. Ryzhkov, and R. L. Holle, 2001: Multiscale structure and evolution of an Oklahoma winter precipitation event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 486-501.

Wakimoto, R. M. and B. L. Bosart, 2001: Airborne radar observations of a warm front during FASTEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 254-274.

Wetzel, S. W., and J. E. Martin, 2000: An operational ingredients based methodology for forecasting midlatitude winter season precipitation. WAF, 16, 156-167.

Wiesmueller, J. L., and S. M. Zubrick, 1998: Evaluation and application of conditional symmetric instability, equivalent potential vorticity, and frontogenetical forcing in an operational forecasting environment. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 84-101.


Moore, J. T., and T. Lambert, 1993: The use of equivalent potential vorticity to diagnose regions of conditional symmetric stability. WAF, 8, 301-308.

Martin, J. E., 1998: The structure and evolution of a continental winter cyclone. Part II: Frontal forcing of an extreme snow event. MWR, 126, 329-348.

Byrd, G. P., 1989: A composite analysis of winter season overrunning precipitation bands of the the southern plains of the United States. J. of Atmos. Sci, 46, 1119-1131.

Reuter, G. W., and R. Beaubien, 1996: Radar observations of snow formation in a warm pre-frontal snowband. Atmos Physics? Geophys. research letters?

Reuter, G. W., and M. K. Yau, 1990: Observations of slantwise convective instability in winter cyclones. MWR, 118, 447-458.


Bell, G. D., and L. F. Bosart, 1988: Appalachian cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 137-161.

Bosart, L. F., 1975: New England coastal frontogenesis. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 101, 957-978.

Bosart, L. F., 1999: Observed Cyclone Life Cycles. The Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones, M. A. Shapiro and S. Grns, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 187-213.

Bosart, L. F., C. J. Vaudo, and J. H. Helsdon, Jr., 1972: Coastal frontogenesis. J. Appl. Meteor., 11, 1236-1258.

Bosart, L. F., and F. Sanders, 1986: Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11-12 February 1983, Part III: A large amplitude gravity wave and coastal frontogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 924-939.

Bosart, L. F., and F. Sanders, 1991: An early-season coastal storm: Conceptual success and model failure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 2832-2851.

Bosart, L. F., G. J. Hakim, K. R. Tyle, M. A. Bedrick, W. E. Bracken, M. J. Dickinson, and D. M. Schultz, 1996: Large-scale antecedent conditions associated with the 12-14 March 1993 cyclone ("Superstorm '93") over Eastern North America. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 1865-1891.

Bosart, L. F., W. E. Bracken, and A. Seimon 1998: A study of cyclone mesoscale structure with emphasis on a large-amplitude inertia-gravity wave. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1497-1527.

Colman, B. R., 1990a: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part I: A climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1103-1121.

Colman, B. R., 1990b: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part II: Organization and instability mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1123-1144.

Dickinson, M. J., M. A. Bedrick, L. F. Bosart, W. E. Bracken, G. J. Hakim, D. M. Schultz, and K. R. Tyle, 1997: The March 1993 Superstorm cyclogenesis: Incipient phase synoptic-and convective-scale flow interaction and model performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 3041-3072.

Emanuel, K. A., 1985: Frontogenesis in the presence of low moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1062-1072.

Forbes, G. S., R. A. Anthes, and D. W. Thomson, 1987: Synoptic and mesoscale aspects of an Appalachian ice storm associated with cold-air damming. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 564-591.

Fritsch, J. M., J. Kapolka, and P. A. Hirschberg, 1992: The effects of subcloud-layer diabatic processes on cold air damming. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 49-70.

Fritsch, J. M., R. A. Houze Jr., R. Adler, H. Bluestein, L. Bosart, J. Brown, F. Carr, C. Davis, R. H. Johnson, N. Junker, Y-H. Kuo, S. Rutledge, J. Smith, Z. Toth, J. W. Wilson, E. Zipser, and D. Zrnic, 1998: Quantitative precipitation forecasting: Report of the Eighth Prospectus Development Team, U. S. Weather Research Program. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 285-299.

Homan, J., and L. W. Uccellini, 1987: Winter forecast problems associated with light to moderate snow events in the mid-Atlantic States on 14 and 22 February 1986. Wea. and Forecasting, 2, 206-228.

LaPenta, K. D., B. J. McNaught, S. J. Capriola, L. A. Giordano, C. D. Little, S. D. Hrebenach, G. M. Carter, D. Valverde, and D. S. Frey, 1995: The challenge of forecasting heavy rain and flooding throughout the Eastern Region of the National Weather Service. Part I: Characteristics and events. Wea. and Forecasting, 10, 78-90.

Loughe, A. F., C.-C. Lai, and D. Keyser, 1995: A technique for diagnosing three-dimensional ageostrophic circulations in baroclinic disturbances on limited-area domains. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1476-1504.

McCann, D. W., 1999: Comments on "evaluation and application of conditional symmetric instability, equivalent potential vorticity, and frontogenetic forcing in an operational forecast environment". Wea. and Forecasting, 14, 470-472.

Nicosia, D. J., and R. H. Grumm, 1999: Mesoscale band formation in three major Northeastern United States snowstorms. Wea. and Forecasting, 14, 346-368.

Nicosia, D. J., E. J. Ostuno, N. Winstead, G. Klavun, C. Patterson, C. Gilbert, G. Bryan, J. H. E. Clark, and J. M. Fritsch, 1999: A flash flood from a lake-enhanced rainband. Wea. and Forecasting, 14, 271-288.

Nielsen, J. W., and P. P. Neilley, 1990: The vertical structure of New England coastal fronts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1793-1807.

Riordan, A. J., 1990: Examination of the mesoscale features of the GALE Coastal Front of 24-25 January 1986. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 258-282.

Riordan, A. J., T. H. Anderson, and S. Chiswell, 1995: Small-scale structure of a coastal front as revealed by dual-doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 622-640.

Roebber, P. J., and L. F. Bosart, 1998: The sensitivity of precipitation to circulation details. Part I: An analysis of regional analogues. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 437-455.

Sanders, F., and L. F. Bosart, 1985a: Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11-12 February 1983. Part I: Frontogenetical forcing and symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1050-1061.

Sanders, F., and L. F. Bosart, 1985b: Mesoscale structure in the Megalopolitan snowstorm, 11-12 February 1983. Part II: Doppler radar study of the New England snowband. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1398-1407.

Schultz, D. M., D. Keyser, and L. F. Bosart, 1998: The effect of large-scale flow on low-level frontal structure and evolution in midlatitude cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1767-1791.

Szeto, K. K., C. A. Lin, and R. E. Stewart, 1988a: Mesoscale circulations forced by melting snow. Part I: Basic simulations and dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1629-1641.

Szeto, K. K., R. E. Stewart, and C. A. Lin, 1988b: Mesoscale circulations forced by melting snow. Part II: Application to meteorological features. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1642-1650.

Uccellini, L. W., and P. J. Kocin, 1987: The interaction of jet streak circulations during heavy snow events along the East Coast of the United States. Wea. and Forecasting, 2, 289-308.

Uccellini, L. W., 1990: Processes Contributing to the Rapid Development of Extratropical cyclones. Extratropical Cyclones, Palmn Memorial Volume, C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81-105.